Industrial Power Studies
Quad Plus offers standard and specialized power system studies plus pre- and post- installation power quality audits to precisely target and help correct power issues. These studies will help optimize your power systems performance and improve safety. Studies are performed by professional engineers and in accordance with applicable industry standards from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and the National Electrical Code (NEC). Quad Plus specializes in low and medium voltage power systems.
Quad Plus provides substation and power distribution system design. This includes load analysis, system layout and calculations and specifications for cables, conduits, transformers, protective devices, panels and switchgear. Quad Plus can also assist with the utility approval process.
A coordination study selects or verifies the clearing characteristics of protective devices such as fuses, circuit breakers and relays. The objective of protection is to minimize hazards to personnel and equipment while minimizing the disruption to the remainder of the power system. This study determines instrument transformer ratios, settings for protective relays, breaker size and fuse ratings.
Arc Flash Hazard Analysis
To help you provide safe working conditions, we provide a turn-key approach for your Arc Flash Hazard Assessment that includes the following:
- Data Collection
- Power System Modeling
- Short Circuit & Coordination Studies
- Arc Flash Hazard Analysis
- Report & Recommendations
- Apply Device Settings
- Install Labels
- Arc Flash Training for Personnel
An arc flash hazard analysis study is conducted by professional electrical engineers skilled in performing and interpreting power system studies. Results of the Arc Flash Hazard Analysis will be used to define the flash protection boundary and the incident energy at critical locations in the electrical system. Necessary personal protection equipment (PPE) will be suggested based upon Table 130.7(C)(16) of NFPA 70E-2012. Safe working distances will be specified for these locations based on the calculated arc flash boundary. The arc flash hazard analysis will be calculated using IEEE-Standard 1584-2002.
Short Circuit Studies
A short circuit study determines the magnitude of fault currents flowing throughout the power system. The information collected is used in the selection of fuse, breaker and switchgear ratings and in determining protective relay settings. The fault currents are also compared to equipment ratings to evaluate the protective devices’ ability to interrupt and clear the available fault currents.
Load Flow Studies
Load flow studies determine the voltage, current, active power, reactive power and power factor in each line or branch of a power system. The study results help determine when new equipment additions are needed and/or the effectiveness of new alternatives to solve present deficiencies and meet future system requirements. This study determines the following:
- Component or circuit loadings
- Steady state bus voltages
- Reactive power flows
- Transformer tap settings
- System losses
- Generator exciter/regulator voltage set points
- Performance under emergency conditions
Harmonics are currents and voltages having a frequency that is a multiple of the system fundamental frequency (for example, the third harmonic for a 60 hertz system has a frequency of 180 hertz). These harmonic currents and voltages can adversely affect other components in the power system. A harmonics analysis determines whether harmonic currents and voltages exceed recommended limits as determined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and if remedial actions are necessary, such as tuned harmonic filter banks. The study typically includes on-site harmonic distortion measurements, on-site data collection, power system modeling on a digital computer, engineering analysis and a report with results and recommendations.
Power Factor Correction Studies
A power factor correction study is a steady-state analysis of the power system’s capability to supply the connected load for normal or proposed operating conditions. The study determines the real (kW) and reactive (kVAR) power flow and power factor through various components, lines and branches of a power system. This data is used to determine the following:
- Reactive Power Flows
- Need, Ratings and Location of Capacitors for Power Factor Correction
- Basic Economic Analysis and Payback Period for Recommended Equipment
Transient Motor Starting Analysis
Performing a transient motor starting analysis determines if the electrical system can start the motor. The study also determines sys-tem bus voltages and branch currents during starting and the time required for the motor to come up to full speed. The study is per-formed for a given circuit configuration or power system condition. The Load Flow Analysis is performed before the Motor Starting Study to determine the system conditions prior to starting the motor.
Ground Grid Analysis
A ground grid analysis evaluates the safety of existing and new substation ground grids. Electrical safety standards require proper design, installation and maintenance of substation grounding systems. IEEE standards require systems to minimize electrical shock hazards to personnel. Ground grid systems must limit touch, step and mesh and transferred voltages to safe values during ground fault conditions.